From an e conomist's perspective, making choices involves making decisions 'at the margin' -- that is, making decisions based on small changes in resources:
从人类学家的层次来看,做出寻找包括“在四周”做出决议——也即是说,通过资本的巨大变更做出决议:

How should I spend the next hour?
我该若何蹉跎接下来的一个星期?

How should I spend the next dollar?
下一美金该干吗花?

In fact, e conomist Greg Mankiw lists under the "10 principles of economics" in his popular economics textbook the notion that "rational people think at the margin." On the surface, this seems like a strange way of considering the choices made by people and firms.
实习上,人类学家格雷格·曼昆在他广受等待的人类学教程中的“人类学的著名的准则”下述出了“感性的人在四周回想起”。从表面上看,这如同是一款奇怪的途径来认真思考童鞋们和上班的地方做出的寻找。

It is rare that someone would consciously ask themselves -- "How will I spend dollar number 24,387?" or "How will I spend dollar number 24,388?" The idea of marginal analysis doesn't require that people explicitly think in this way, just that their actions are consistent with what they would do if they did think in this way.  
特别少有人会有知道地问旁人——“我将若何花24,387美金?”与“我将若何花24,388美金?”四周分解的话题并非说明童鞋们肯定说明地以这类途径回想起,只说明彼的暴行与彼以这类途径回想起会做的各项是大量的。

Marginal analysis can be applied to both individual and firm decision making.
四周分解既适用于很特别的一些鞭策,也适用于上班的地方鞭策。

For firms, profit maximization is achieved by weighing marginal revenue versus marginal cost.
相比于上班的地方而言,分红最大化是通过权衡四周出纳与四周分红来达到的。

For individuals, utility maximization is achieved by weighing the marginal benefit versus marginal cost. Note, however, that in both contexts the decision maker is performing an incremental form of cost-benefit analysis.
对很特别的一些而言,作用最大化是通过权衡四周作用和四周分红来达到的。但请留心,在这两类状况下,鞭策者都在遵行一款增量症状表现的分红作用分解。

Let’s see an example:
让我来看一个案例:

To gain some more insight, consider the decision regarding how many hours to work, where the benefits and costs of working are designated by the following chart:
若要更深刻的明白,我来权衡一哈相关办事工夫的决议,办事的出纳和分红由这个下面的表册指定的:

Hour - Hourly Wage - Value of Time
办事工夫 - 每星期的待遇 - 工夫的珍贵

Hour 1: $10 - $2

Hour 2: $10 - $2

Hour 3: $10 - $3

Hour 4: $10 - $3

Hour 5: $10 - $4

Hour 6: $10 - $5

Hour 7: $10 - $6

Hour 8: $10 - $8

Hour 9: $15 - $9

Hour 10: $15 - $12

Hour 11: $15 - $18

Hour 12: $15 - $20

The hourly wage represents what one earns for working an extra hour - it is the marginal gain or the marginal benefit.
每星期的待遇表征了一自个特别办事一星期的奖金——这是四周出纳或四周作用。

The value of time is essentially an opportunity cost -- it is how much one values having that hour off. In this example, it represents a marginal cost -- what it costs an individual to work an additional hour. The increase in marginal costs is a common phenomenon; one usually doesn't mind working a few hours since there are 24 hours in a day. She still has plenty of time to do other things. However, as an individual starts to work more hours, it reduces the number of hours she has for other activities. She has to start giving up more and more valuable opportunities to work those extra hours.
工夫的珍贵本质上是一个次数分红——它是一自个结业一个星期的珍贵。在另外案例中,它表征了四周分红——一自个特别办事一星期的分红。四周分红的加强是一个社区迹象;童鞋们通常不介怀办事几多星期,缘于某天有24星期,她另有短缺的工夫做另外各项。但,当一自个有一些办事更长工夫时,这就杜绝了她就业另外波动的工夫。她不能不有一些废弃甚至多的金贵次数来加班加点。

It is clear that she should work the first hour, as she gains $10 in marginal benefits and loses only $2 in marginal costs, for a net gain of $8.
明显,她理当在榜首个星期办事,缘于他的四周出纳是10美金,而四周分红既2美金,净出纳是8美金。

By the same logic, she should work the second and third hours as well. She will want to work until the time at which the marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit. She will also want to work the 10th hour as she receives a net benefit of $3 (marginal benefit of $15, marginal cost of $12). However, she will not want to work the 11th hour, as the marginal cost ($18) exceeds the marginal benefit ($15) by three dollars.
利用一样的道理,她也理当在第2和第3个星期办事。她会长久办事到四周分红多出四周作用的工夫。到第10个星期的工夫她则是宁愿办事,缘于他的净出纳为3美金(四周出纳为15美金,四周分红为12美金)。但,第11个星期的办事她就麻烦宁愿做了,缘于四周分红(18美金)比四周作用(15美金)还得不足3美金。

Thus marginal analysis suggests that rational maximizing behavior is to work for 10 hours. More generally, optimal outcomes are achieved by examining marginal benefit and marginal cost for each incremental action and performing all of the actions where marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost and none of the actions where marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit. Because marginal benefits tend to decrease as one does more of an activity but marginal costs tend to increase, the marginal analysis will usually define a unique optimal level of activity.
是以,四周分解注解,均匀的最大化暴行是办事10星期。更含胡的说,通过查验每家增量作为的四周作用和四周分红,并遵行四周作用多出四周分红的每家作为,与四周分红不多出四周作用的任何作为,均可获得最好事后。缘于四周出纳会因为不失为波动的加强而杜绝,而四周分红却加强,是以四周分解通联席会议原理一个就是的最好波动力量。

 

(译:雅兰)