Chances are you don’t start work in the morning without first having a cup (or several) of coffee.
如果不先喝一杯(或几杯)咖啡,你早上可能没法开始工作。

But as board-certified sleep specialist and The Power of When author Michael Breus sees it, exactly when you should have caffeine depends on your sleep type.
不过,作为一名经过认证的睡眠专家和《四型生理时钟》的作者,迈克尔·布劳斯认为,何时摄取咖啡因取决于你的睡眠类型。

When it comes to falling asleep and waking up, Breus has found there are four types of people in the worldCor rather, animals: bears, lions, wolves, and dolphins. Each represents a so-called “chronotype” that describes your body’s natural sleep habits and energy patterns. Knowing not to act like a wolf when you’re really a bear, says Breus, can help you have less painful wake-ups, fewer after-lunch slumps, and more productive workdays overall.
布劳斯发现,根据入睡和醒来的时间,世上的人可以分为四种,或者用四种动物来表示,那就是熊、狮子、狼和海豚。每个动物代表一种“睡眠类型”,描述一个人身体的自然睡眠习惯和能量模式。布劳斯表示,如果你是一头熊,就不要像狼一样行事,这能帮你减轻起床时的痛苦,减少午餐后的低迷,以及从整体上帮你提高工作效率。

Here’s what an ideal workday might look like, according to Breus, for bears, lions, wolves, and dolphins:
以下是布劳斯推荐的一个理想的工作日作息时间表,分别针对熊、狮子、狼和海豚四种人:

Bears are 50%C55% of the population. “They are the ‘get it done’ group,” Breus says. “They have normal sleep schedules, but may not get quite enough sleep.”
占人口的50%到55%。布劳斯表示,“他们属于执行力很强的人,拥有正常的睡眠作息,但可能睡眠时间不足。”

MORNING ROUTINE: 7 a.m.C11 a.m.
早上例行程序:早上7点至上午11点

  • Wake up and get your blood flowing with 10 minutes of stretching.
    醒来,拉伸10分钟,让血液流动起来。
  • Eat a light breakfast: fruit, yogurt, nuts, and a 16-ounce glass of water.
    吃清淡的早餐:水果、酸奶、坚果和一杯16盎司(约468毫升)的水。
  • Take 15 minutes or so to plan your day.
    花15分钟左右来计划你的一天。
  • Then you can grab that coffee.
    然后可以拿起那杯咖啡。

PEAK WORKING HOURS: 11 a.m.C6 p.m.
高效工作时间:上午11点至晚上6点

  • Kick off your first period of high alertness with something that takes a lot of focus.
    第一阶段是你最清醒的时候,所以可以先做需要高度集中注意力的工作。
  • As your caffeine boost wears off, head outside to pick up lunch on the early sideCand soak in some sunlight, which reminds your body that it’s time to be alert and active.
    当咖啡因渐渐失效后,可以稍微提前到外面买午餐,晒晒太阳,让自己的身体保持清醒和活跃。
  • Lunch, around noon, will give you a second boost of energy for more high-value tasks.
    午餐在中午12点左右,它会为你提供第二波能量,从而让你能够应对更多富有价值的任务。
  • Around 2 p.m., your energy will start to ebb, but you’ll be in a great mood. Time for meetings, brainstorms, and a protein-heavy snack to carry you through the afternoon.
    下午两点左右,你的精力开始下降,但会保持愉快的心情。这段时间可以用来开会,进行头脑风暴,然后吃一点高蛋白的零食,可以让你一下午都保持精神。

AFTER WORK: 6 p.m.C10 p.m.
工作后:晚上6点至10点

  • ExerciseCknowing that getting started is probably going to be a little tough.
    运动,要知道最难的可能就是开始。
  • After your workout, wind down for a light dinner, and go easy on the carbs.
    锻炼过后,放松一下,享用一顿简单的晚餐,注意不要摄入过多的碳水化合物。
  • The period after dinner is prime time to socialize.
    晚餐后是社交黄金时间。

END OF DAY: 10 p.m.C11 p.m.
一天结束:晚上10点至11点

  • Power down at 10 p.m., especially all your devices.
    晚上10点关闭电源,记得关闭你所有的设备。
  • Lights out by 11. Bears find it easy to stay up late, only to struggle with getting up on time the next day.
    在11点前熄灯。对熊来说,熬夜很容易,但是第二天准时起床却很难。

Lions “wake up without an alarm, and it is usually dark out,” Breus explains. Type-A personalities, lions typically “send emails before most people are awake” and represent around 15% of the population.
狮子“不用定闹钟,经常天没亮就起床了”。A型性格的狮子通常在大多数人还没醒来前就开始发邮件了,这一群体约占人口的15%。

MORNING ROUTINE: 5:30 a.m.C10 a.m.
早上例行程序:清晨5点半至上午10点

  • Lions can wake up easily around 5:30 a.m. without an alarm.
    狮子会在凌晨5点半左右醒来,不需要设置闹钟。
  • Have a high-protein breakfast by 6, avoiding carbs if you can.
    6点左右吃一顿富含高蛋白的早餐,尽可能避免碳水化合物。
  • Find a spot to meditate, for up to an hour if you can spare the time, before anybody else gets up.
    如果能腾出时间的话,在其他人醒来前,找个地方冥想,最多一小时。
  • If you’d rather squeeze in an early-morning workout, go for it. But you’ll have energy to do this later in the day if you’d prefer.
    如果你想早上锻炼一下,就去锻炼好了。不过其实之后你还会有时间和精力去锻炼的。
  • Time for a coffee at 9 a.m.
    9点时喝杯咖啡。

PEAK WORKING HOURS: 10 a.m.C5 p.m.
高效工作时间:上午10点至下午5点

  • Breakfast was already three or four hours ago! So eat a small snack like a protein bar.
    早餐过去已经三四个小时了!可以吃点小零食,比如蛋白棒。
  • Dive into your work to make the most of your peak productivity time: morning meetings, callsCor chip away at a couple of big strategic tasks.
    投入工作,利用好效率最高的这段时间,适合开晨间会议、电话会议,或者是做一些重大决策工作。
  • Instead of hitting up a business mixer after hours (you’ll be drained by then), schedule a networking meeting or a catch-up with a coworker over lunch.
    一连工作几个小时后,避免参加职场交际活动(到时候你已经筋疲力尽了),可以在午餐期间安排交际活动或者找一位同事聊天。
  • From 1C2:30 p.m., slide into solo work or do some brainstorming.
    从下午一点到两点半,开始单独工作,或头脑风暴。
  • After 3 p.m. or so, shift focus for the easier, more administrative tasksCnothing intensely detailed or mentally taxing.
    下午三点以后,转移焦点,开始做一些容易的、不太细致或是不需要耗费脑力的行政工作。

AFTER WORK: 5 p.m.C9:30 p.m.
工作后:下午5点至晚上9点半

  • If you can, ditch the office on the early side, by 4:30 or 5, since your energy will start to dip by mid-afternoon.
    如果可以的话,到4点半或5点就提前结束办公,因为下午过半,你的精力已经开始下降了。
  • That’s also a great time to work out if you haven’t yet, and it’ll give you a slight energy boost to carry you into the evening.
    如果你早上没有锻炼的话,这个时间适合用来锻炼,运动会提升你的精力,让你到晚上仍旧保持活力。
  • Make sure dinner is an even balance of protein, healthy fats, and carbs.
    确保晚餐平衡蛋白质、健康脂肪和碳水化合物的摄入。

END OF DAY: 9:30 p.m.C10:30 p.m.
一天结束:晚上9点半至10点半

  • You may still have some energy left to spend time with family or hang with friends, but you’ll want to keep it low impact.
    你可能还有精力与家人共度时光,或者和朋友交往,但是要保持低负荷活动。
  • Hit the hay by 10:30.
    在10点半以前上床睡觉。

Wolves represent 15C20% of the population, says Breus. “They hate mornings and usually hit the snooze button multiple times. They are late to work, and usually on their third cup of coffee at 9 a.m.” Wolves tend to go hard on caffeine in the mornings in order to “overcome their wolfishness,” Breus explains.
占人口的15%到20%。布劳斯说:“他们讨厌早起,经常早上按几次贪睡按钮还是爬不起来。他们上班晚到,9点已经开始喝第三杯咖啡了。”狼在早上会摄入大量咖啡因,布劳斯的解释是,这是为了“克服狼性”。

MORNING ROUTINE: 7:30 a.m.C12 p.m.
早上例行程序:早上7点半至中午12点

  • Set your alarm for around 7, but let yourself hit snooze so you can sleep in for another 20C30 minutes, then crawl out of bed. It’s not going to be fun.
    把闹钟定在早上7点左右,闹钟响了之后按贪睡按钮,再睡20到30分钟,然后爬下床。这个过程一点也不有趣。
  • Go stand in front of a window and drink a 16-ounce glass of water. The sunlight will help you wake up as you rehydrate.
    站在窗前,喝一杯16盎司(约468毫升)的水,补充身体水分,晒晒阳光,帮助自己清醒过来。
  • Throw on your sneakers and go for a 20C40-minute walk or a bike ride around the neighborhood. This might be a good time to brainstorm.
    穿上运动鞋,在附近散步或骑行20到40分钟。这也是头脑风暴的好时机。
  • Don’t open your email yet or start interacting with coworkers, just draw up your to-do list for the day.
    不要打开电子邮件,也不要和同事交流,先开始制定一天的待办事项清单。
  • At 11 a.m., you can finally grab that coffeeCand it doesn’t hurt to catch a few more minutes of sunlight again if you’re able to.
    上午11点,喝杯咖啡,可以的话再出去晒几分钟太阳。

PEAK PRODUCTIVITY: 12 p.m.C8 p.m.
高效工作时间:中午12点至晚上8点

  • Knock out busywork until lunchtime, around 1 p.m.
    忙碌工作,到下午一点左右再去吃午餐。
  • By 2 p.m., you’ll be at the top of your game. Switch to the tough tasks on your to-do list, or pull your team together for a big group brainstorm.
    下午两点是你一天中精力最旺盛的时候。切换到工作清单中艰难的事项,或者是把团队拉到一起开始集体头脑风暴。
  • At 5 p.m., you’ll still be going strong. Have a snack and keep working. You’re at your most creative and energized through early evening, even after some of your coworkers have gone home.
    下午5点,你还是精神饱满。吃点零食,继续工作。傍晚时分是你一天中最有创造力和精力最旺的时刻,即便这个时候你的一些同事都已经下班回家了。

AFTER WORK: 8 p.m.C11 p.m.
工作后:晚上8点至11点

  • After winding down your workday, you can exercise around 7 or 8 p.m.
    结束一天的工作后,你可以在晚上7点或8点去锻炼。
  • Then have a late dinner, around 8 or even 9 p.m.
    锻炼结束后再吃晚餐,晚餐时间大概在8点甚至9点左右。

END OF DAY: 11 p.m.C12 a.m.
一天结束:晚上11点至12点

  • Start powering down all your screens by 11.
    到晚上11点的时候就开始关闭所有的电子屏幕。
  • You’ll be able to stay up late into the night if you aren’t careful, so commit to lights-out by midnight.
    你一不小心就会熬夜,所以睡眠时间到了就要熄灯。

Dolphins “are anxious people who have irregular sleep schedules,” according to Breus, who estimates that one in 10 people are dolphins. “They often self-diagnose as insomniacs and send emails all night long.”
海豚属于“睡眠作息不规律的焦虑人士”,按照布劳斯的说法,十个人当中有一个是海豚。“他们自认为患有失眠症,可以发邮件发一整个晚上。”

MORNING ROUTINE: 6 a.m.C10 a.m.
早上例行程序:早上6点至上午10点

  • Jump out of bed and into your running shoes. Break a light sweat and get some sun.
    快速起床,跑步出点汗,晒晒太阳。
  • Take a cool shower by 7:30 to avoid getting drowsy again.
    在7点半之前冲个冷水澡,以免再次昏昏欲睡。
  • Grab breakfast around 8 a.m.: half carbs, half protein, no caffeine (yet).
    8点左右吃早餐:半碳水、半蛋白,暂时不要喝咖啡。
  • Think through your goals for the day or sketch out a to-do list, but wait to socialize with your coworkers until your first coffee break.
    想一想当天的目标或是列个待办事项清单,在上午第一次休息喝咖啡的时候再和同事交际。

PEAK PRODUCTIVITY: 10 a.m.C6 p.m.
高效工作时间:上午10点至晚上6点

  • Have a small coffee by 9:30 or 10, but make sure it’s half decaf. You’ll need less of a boost than you think.
    在9点半和10点的时候喝一小杯咖啡,确保是半咖啡因的。你不需要摄入太多咖啡因来打起精神。
  • Between 10 a.m. and noon is peak creativity time, so work on the harder, big-picture goals you’ve set for the day.
    上午10点到中午这段时间的你最有创造力,所以这段时间你要做比较艰难的重要工作。
  • After lunch, by around 1 p.m, you’ll be fading, so leave your desk and get some direct sunlight and fresh air for at least 15 minutes.
    午餐后,下午一点左右,你的精力开始消退,这时候可以暂时离开办公桌,花至少15分钟出去晒晒太阳,呼吸新鲜空气。
  • You’ll be at your most alert by late afternoon. Plug away at detailed tasks until 6 p.m.
    傍晚前这段时间是你一天中最为清醒的时刻。可以利用晚上6点前这段时间去做细致的工作。

AFTER WORK: 6 a.m.C10 p.m.
工作后:晚上6点至10点

  • Grab a banana and head to yoga class. Avoid a high-intensity workout, which might wind up keeping you awake longer than you’d like.
    吃根香蕉,然后去上瑜伽课。避免高强度锻炼,不然晚上会很难入睡。
  • Dinner at 7, and consider using this time to chat with a partner, spouse, or friend. Dolphins find evening mealtime ideal for resolving conflicts and thinking through big ideas with others.
    7点吃晚餐,并考虑在这段时间和伴侣、配偶或朋友聊天。海豚会发现晚餐时间是化解冲突以及和其他人沟通重大想法的好时机。

END OF DAY: 10 p.m.C12 a.m.
一天结束:晚上10点至12点

  • By 10 p.m., begin a bedtime ritual that can help you wind down: Turn off your smartphone and resist the urge to watch TV before bed. Run a hot bath and take a soak to relax instead.
    到晚上10点,开始一个可以帮助你放松的睡前仪式:关闭智能手机,控制睡前看电视的冲动,可以选择泡一泡热水澡来放松自己。
  • If TV is how you unwind, try to limit it to 90 minutes or so.
    如果看电视是你放松的方式,那么尽量控制在90分钟以内。
  • Drift off by midnight, but try not to beat yourself up if you find yourself staring at the ceiling for awhile first. You may have trouble falling asleep, but chances are you’ll still be getting the shut-eye you need.
    半夜时渐渐入睡,如果发现自己一开始盯着天花板很长时间难以入睡,也不要太过焦虑,闭上眼你还是可以获得你需要的休息。

(翻译:Frank)